Saturday, June 24, 2017

FTP bounce

Which of the following is indicative of an FTP bounce?
A.
Arbitrary IP address
B.
Reverse DNS lookups
C.
Same Port Number
D.
File Transfer Success

How it works is the attacker sends an FTP PORT command to an FTP server that contains the IP address and port number of the machine (and service) being attacked. This file contains commands relevant to the service being attacked (SMTP, NNTP, and so on), instructing a third party to connect to the service. Hence, rather than connecting directly to the machine, it makes tracking down the perpetrator difficult, and can circumvent network address­based access restrictions. As an example, suppose that a client uploads a file containing SMTP commands to an FTP server. Then, using an appropriate PORT command, the client instructs the server to open a connection to a third machine's SMTP port. Finally, the client instructs the server to transfer the uploaded file containing SMTP commands to the third machine. This may allow the client to forge mail on the third machine without making a direct connection.
Another aspect of FTP that opens the system up to security problems is the third-party mecha- nism included in the FTP specification known as proxy FTP. It is used to allow an FTP client to have the server transfer the files to a third computer, which can expedite file transfers over slow con- nections. However, it also makes the system vulnerable to something called a "bounce attack." Bounce attacks are outlined in RFC 2577, and involves attackers scanning other computers through an FTP server. Because the scan is run against other computers through the FTP server, it appears at face value that the FTP server is actually running the scans.This attack is initiated by a hacker who first uploads files to the FTP server.Then they send an FTP "PORT" command to the FTP server, using the IP address and port number of the victim machine, and instruct the server to send the files to the victim machine.This can be used, for example, to transfer an upload file con- taining SMTP commands so as to forge mail on the third-party machine without making a direct connection. It will be hard to track down the perpetrator because the file was transferred through an intermediary (the FTP server). Packet Sniffing FTP Transmissions As mentioned earlier in this section, FTP traffic is sent in cleartext so that credentials, when used for an FTP connection, can easily be captured via MITM attacks, eavesdropping, or sniffing. Exercise 5.03 looks at how easy it is to crack FTP with a sniffer. Sniffing (covered in Chapter 2) is a type of passive attack that allows hackers to eavesdrop on the network, capture passwords, and use them for a possible password cracking attack.

Another aspect of FTP that opens the system up to security problems is the third-party mecha- nism included in the FTP specification known as proxy FTP. It is used to allow an FTP client to have the server transfer the files to a third computer, which can expedite file transfers over slow con- nections. However, it also makes the system vulnerable to something called a "bounce attack." Bounce attacks are outlined in RFC 2577, and involves attackers scanning other computers through an FTP server. Because the scan is run against other computers through the FTP server, it appears at face value that the FTP server is actually running the scans.This attack is initiated by a hacker who first uploads files to the FTP server.Then they send an FTP "PORT" command to the FTP server, using the IP address and port number of the victim machine, and instruct the server to send the files to the victim machine.This can be used, for example, to transfer an upload file con- taining SMTP commands so as to forge mail on the third-party machine without making a direct connection. It will be hard to track down the perpetrator because the file was transferred through an intermediary (the FTP server). Packet Sniffing FTP Transmissions As mentioned earlier in this section, FTP traffic is sent in cleartext so that credentials, when used for an FTP connection, can easily be captured via MITM attacks, eavesdropping, or sniffing. Exercise 5.03 looks at how easy it is to crack FTP with a sniffer. Sniffing (covered in Chapter 2) is a type of passive attack that allows hackers to eavesdrop on the network, capture passwords, and use them for a possible password cracking attack.



PORT commands can also be used in FTP Bounce attacks, in which an attacking FTP client sends a PORT command requesting that the server open a data port to a differ- ent host than that from which the command originated. FTP Bounce attacks are used to scan networks for active hosts, to subvert firewalls, and to mask the true origin of FTP client requests (e.g., to skirt export restrictions). The only widely supported (RFC-compliant) alternative to active mode FTP is pas- sive mode FTP, in which the client rather than the server opens data connections. That mitigates the "new inbound connection" problem, but passive FTP still uses a separate connection to a random high port, making passive FTP only slightly easier to deal with from a firewall-engineering perspective. (Many firewalls, including Linux iptables, now support FTP connection tracking of passive mode FTP; a few can track active mode as well.) There are two main lessons to take from this discussion of active versus passive FTP. First, of the two, passive is preferable since all connections are initiated by the client, making it somewhat easier to regulate and harder to subvert than active mode FTP. Second, FTP is an excellent candidate for proxying at the firewall, even if your fire- wall is otherwise set up as a packet filter.

Key stretching - explicação

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